Over the past decades, public and official concern about infectious diseases as a major public health threat have been renewed. The type of disease – classical, emerging or re-emerging – like tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid fever or dengue, the country in question – developed or developing, and its location – semi-desert, sylvatic or mountain region – defines the kind of concern. However, it is important to consider climate change, and its current and further effects, with the consequent variations in different zones. Distinct regions will be affected in different ways depending on their people, health systems, population size, infrastructure, type of construction material (wood, concrete, or makeshift materials), whether settlements are located close to rivers, hills or valleys, and certainly the local weather. In this paper, we analyze the effects of climate change on the prevalence of the most common waterborne diseases (i.e. typhoid fever, cholera, amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis, hepatitis A).